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Hidden True - Pentagram

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1 Hidden True - Pentagram on Wed Aug 01, 2012 11:10 pm

Phueng

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Symbolic meaning of the pentagram

The Pentagram is a symbol of a star encased in a circle. Always with 5 points (one pointing upward), each has its own meaning. The upward point of the star is representative of the spirit. The other four points all represent an element; earth, air, fire, and water. All these things contibutite to life and are a part of each of us.

To wear a pentagram necklace or other form of jewelry, is to say you feel the connection with the elements and respect the earth.

The number 5

The number 5 has always been regarded as mystical and magical, yet essentially 'human'. We have five fingers/toes on each limb extremity.We commonly note five senses - sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. We perceive five stages or initiations in our lives - eg. birth, adolescence, coitus, parenthood and death. (There are other numbers / initiations / stages / attributions).

The number 5 is associated with Mars. It signifies severity, conflict and harmony through conflict. In Christianity, five were the wounds of Christ on the cross. There are five pillars of the Muslim faith and five daily times of prayer.

Five were the virtues of the medieval knight - generosity, courtesy, chastity, chivalry and piety as symbolised in the pentagram device of Sir Gawain. The Wiccan Kiss is Fivefold - feet, knees, womb, breasts, lips - Blessed be.

The number 5 is prime. The simplest star - the pentagram - requires five lines to draw and it is unicursal; it is a continuous loop.

Human stars

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Expressing the saying Every man and every woman is a star, we can juxtapose Man on a pentagram with head and four limbs at the points and the genitalia exactly central. This is Man in microcosm, symbolising our place in the Macrocosm or universe and the Hermetic / Tantric philosophy of associativity as above, so below.

The Golden Proportion

The geometric proportions of the regular pentagram are those of the Golden Section. The Golden Proportion is one beloved of artists since Renaissance times and also to be found in post-Hellenic art and in the geomantic planning of Templar sites, being those proportions of a rectangle considered most pleasing to the eye. Here, the ratio of the lengths of the two sides is equal to the ratio of the longer side to the sum of the two sides. Or :

a/b = b/a+b = a+b/a+2b = a+2b/2a+3b = 2a+3b/3a+5b ....etc.
If a square is added to the long side of a golden rectangle, a larger golden rectangle is formed. Continuing this progression forms the basis for a nautilus spiral. The ratio of the distance between two points of a pentagram to its total width is in the golden proportion, as is the ratio of the height above the horizontal bar to that below, as is the ratio of a central part of a line to the outer part.

This ratio forms the foundation of the Fibonacci series of numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, etc. where each number is formed by adding the previous two numbers. The Fibonacci series is much found in nature in the pattern arrangement of flower heads and leaves and many flower heads and fruits themselves exhibit a fivefold symmetry.

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Protection against evil

The pentagram has long been believed to be a potent protection against evil, a symbol of conflict that shields the wearer and the home. The pentagram has five spiked wards and a womb shaped defensive, protective pentagon at the centre.

Five elements

Here are five elements, four of matter (earth, air, fire and water) and THE quintessential - spirit. These may be arrayed around the pentagrams points. The word quintessential derives from this fifth element - the spirit. Tracing a path around the pentagram, the elements are placed in order of density - spirit (or aether). fire, air, water, earth. Earth and fire are basal, fixed; air and water are free, flowing.

The single point upwards signifies the spirit ruling matter (mind ruling limbs); is a symbol of rightness. With two points up and one (spirit) downwards, subservient, the emphasis is on the carnal nature of Man.

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Drawing a Pentagram

These point attributions are used in ritually inscribing, as a flourish of the hands or the athame, different forms of pentagram for invoking or banishing (grounding) each of the elementals according to the nature of the ritual. The line traces as illustrated for earth (the last stroke is optional).

Another way of seeing this path is as Man's spiritual journey through evolution. The spark of Life descending from God, the divine source of life to the simplest embryonic form (earth), rising to flow (water - air) on our plane of existence (compare with the intonation of the AUM mantra), then again descending to the fire of purification before again rising as a divine spark to find again his spiritual source.

The pentagram may be shown as an interlaced line symbolic of the web-weaving power of magick. The descending spirit-earth line may pass under (male) or over (female) the water-air line to give two slightly differing forms.

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Open Pentagram

A pentagram may be open, without a surrounding circle.This is the active form symbolising an outgoing of oneself, prepared for conflict, aware, active. (One wearing an open pentagram must be physically aware of the danger of sharp points sticking in their skin from time to time). As a pagan religious symbol, the open pentagram represents an open, active approach.

Circled Pentagram

A circle around a pentagram contains and protects. The circle symbolises eternity and infinity, the cycles of life and nature. The circle touching all 5 points indicates that the spirit, earth, air, water and fire are alll connected.

The circled pentagram is the passive form implying spiritual containment of the magic circle, in keeping with the traditional secrecy of witchcraft, and the personal, individual nature of the pagan religious path, of its non-proselytising character.


Inverted Pentagram

The pentagram may be inverted with one point down. The implication is of spirit subservient to matter, of man subservient to his carnal desires. The inverted pentagram has come to be seen by many pagans as representing the dark side and it is abhored as an evil symbol. Fundamental christians, indeed, see any form of pentagram as such. However, these are recent developments and the inverted pentagram is the symbol of Gardnerian second degree initiation, representing the need of the witch to learn to face the darkness within so that it may not later rise up to take control. The centre of a pentagram implies a sixth formative element - love/will which controls from within, ruling matter and spirit by Will and the controlled magickal direction of sexual energies. This is another lesson of initiation.


The Pentagram As A Christian Symbol

Up until medieval times, the five points of the pentagram represented the five wounds of Christ on the Cross. It was a symbol of Christ the Saviour. This is in stark contrast to today where the pentagram is criticized by modern Fundamentalist Christians, as being a symbol of evil.

The church eventually chose the cross as a more significant symbol for Christianity, and the use of the pentagram as a Christian symbol gradually ceased.


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Phueng

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Pentagram
The pentagram has long been associated with mystery and magic. It is
the simplest form of star shape that can be drawn unicursally - with a
single line - hence it is sometimes called the Endless Knot. Other
names are the Goblin's Cross, the Pentalpha, the Witch's Foot, the
Devil's Star and the Seal of Solomon (more correctly attributed to the
hexagram).

It has long been believed to be a potent protection against evil and
demons, hence a symbol of safety, and was sometimes worn as an amulet
for happy homecoming. The old folk-song : "Green Grow the
Rushes,O!" refers to the use of the pentagram above doors and
windows in the line: "Five is the symbol at your door."

The potency and associations of the pentagram have evolved throughout
history. Today it is an ubiquitous symbol of neo-pagans with much
depth of magickal and symbolic meaning.
_________________________________________________________________

The Pentagram through History.

The pentagram symbol today is ascribed many meanings and deep
significance, though much of this is very recent. However, it has been
used throughout history and in many contexts:
* The earliest known use of the pentagram dates back to around
3500BC at Ur of the Chaldees in Ancient Mesopotamia where it was
symbolic of imperial power.
* Amongst the Hebrews, the symbol was ascribed to Truth and to the
five books of the Pentateuch. It is sometimes, incorrectly, called
the Seal of Solomon (see Hexagram).
* In Ancient Greece, it was called the Pentalpha, being
geometrically composed of five A's. Unlike earlier civilizations,
the Greeks did not generally attribute other symbolic meanings to
the letters of their alphabet, but certain symbols became
connected with Greek letter shapes or positions (eg Gammadion,
Alpha-Omega).
* To the Gnostics, the pentagram was the 'Blazing Star'.
* For the Druids, it was a symbol of Godhead.
* In Egypt, it was a symbol of the 'underground womb'.
* The Pagan Celts ascribed the pentagram to the underground goddess
Morrigan.
* Medieval Christians attributed the pentagram to the Five Wounds of
Christ.
* The Christian Emperor Constantine I used the pentagram, together
with the chi-rho symbol in his seal and amulet.

* In the legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the pentagram
was Sir Gawain's glyph, inscribed in gold on his shield,
symbolizing the five knightly virtues.
* In Medieval times, the 'Endless Knot' was a symbol of Truth and
was a protection against demons. It was used as personal
protection and to guard windows and doors.
* The pentagram with one point upwards symbolized summer; with two
points upwards, it was a sign for winter.

+ During the long period of the Inquisition, the pentagram was
seen to symbolize a Goat's Head. In the purge on witches, the
horned god Pan became equated with the Devil (a Christian
concept) and the pentagram, for the first time in history
became a symbol of 'evil' and was called the Witch's Foot.

* In the emergence of Hermeticism, graphical symbolism became very
important. The concept of the microcosmic world of Man as
analogous to the macrocosm, the greater universe of spirit and
elemental matter is a part of traditional occult teaching in both
western and eastern philosophies. "As above, so below."
The pentagram, the 'Star of the Microcosm', symbolized Man within
the microcosm, representing in analogy the Macrocosmic universe.

The upright pentagram bears some resemblance to the
shape of man with his legs and arms outstretched; indeed an
illustration attributed to Agrippa or to Tycho Brae (1582)
illustrates the similarity of proportion in this image, showing
the five planets and the moon at the center point - the genitalia.
There are other illustrations of the period by Robert Fludd and
Leonardo da Vinci showing geometrical relationships of man to the
universe.

+ Later, the pentagram came to be symbolic of the relationship
of the head to the four limbs and hence of the pure
concentrated essence of anything (or the spirit) to the four
traditional elements of matter. - [Quintessence]

* In Freemasonry, Man as Microprosopus was associated with the
five-pointed Seal of Solomon. The symbol was used, interlaced and
upright for the sitting Master of the Lodge. The geometric
properties and structure of the Endless Knot were appreciated and
symbolically incorporated into the 72 degree angle of the
compasses.
* The women's branch of freemasonry uses the five pointed 'Eastern
Star' as its emblem. Each point commemorates a heroine of biblical
lore.

+ No graphical illustration of any association of the pentagram
with evil appears until the nineteenth century. Eliphas Levi
illustrates the upright pentagram of microcosmic man beside
an inverted pentagram with the goat's head of Baphomet.

In ritual magick the sign has long been used as a ritual flourish
of the athame to symbolize invoking or banishing in respect to
elemental associations.

* In the 1940's Gerald Gardner adopted the pentagram with two points
upward as the sigil of second degree initiation in the newly
emergent, neo-pagan rituals of witchcraft, later to become known
as Wicca. The one-point upward pentagram together with the upright
triangle symbolized third degree initiation.
* The pentagram was also inscribed on the altar pentacle, it's
points symbolizing the three aspects of the Goddess plus the two
aspects of the God.
* It was not until the late 1960's that the pentagram again became
an amuletic symbol to be worn and has since then become firmly
established as a common neo-pagan and Wiccan symbol, acquiring
many aspects of mystique and associations that are today often
considered to be ancient folk-lore!

Nevertheless, the potency of a symbol has more to do with its
associations and its commonality than with its antiquity and the
pentagram today is ubiquitous amongst neo-pagans.
_________________________________________________________________

Symbolic Meanings of the Pentagram.

* The number '5' has always been regarded as mystical and magical,
yet essentially 'human'.
+ We have five fingers/toes on each limb extremity.
+ We commonly note five senses - sight, hearing, smell, touch
and taste.
+ We perceive five stages or initiations in our lives - e.g..
birth, adolescence, coitus, parenthood and death. (There are
other numbers/ initiations/stages/attributions).
* The number 5 is associated with Mars. It signifies severity,
conflict and harmony through conflict.
* In Christianity, five were the wounds of Christ on the cross.
* There are five pillars of the Muslim faith and five daily times of
prayer.
* Five were the virtues of the medieval knight - generosity,
courtesy, chastity, chivalry and piety as symbolized in the
pentagram device of Sir Gawain.
* The Wiccan Kiss is Fivefold - feet, knees, womb, breasts, lips -
Blessed be.
_________________________________________________________________

The number 5 is prime. The simplest star - the pentagram- requires
five lines to draw and it is unicursal; it is a continuous loop.

Expressing the saying "Every man and every woman is a star",
we can juxtapose Man on a pentagram with head and four limbs at the
points and the genitalia exactly central. This is Man in microcosm,
symbolizing our place in the Macrocosm or universe and the
Hermetic/Tantric philosophy of associativity - "As above, so below".
_________________________________________________________________

The geometric proportions of the regular pentagram are those of the
Golden Section.
* The Golden Proportion is one beloved of artists since Renaissance
times, being those of a rectangle considered most pleasing in
proportion. Here, the ratio of the lengths of the two sides is
equal to the ratio of the longer side to the sum of the two sides.
Or :
a/b = b/a+b = a+b/a+2b = a+2b/2a+3b = 2a+3b/3a+5b ....etc.
* If a square is added to the long side of a golden rectangle, a
larger golden rectangle is formed. Continuing this progression
forms the basis for a nautilus spiral.
* The ratio of the distance between two points of a pentagram to its
total width is in the golden proportion, as is the ratio of the
height above the horizontal bar to that below, as is the ratio of
a central part of a line to the outer part.
* This ratio forms the foundation of the Fibonacci series of numbers
1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144, etc where each number is formed by
adding the previous two numbers.
* The Fibonacci series is much found in nature in the pattern
arrangement of flower heads and leaves and many flower heads and
fruits themselves exhibit a fivefold symmetry.
_________________________________________________________________

* The pentagram has long been believed to be a potent protection
against evil, a symbol of conflict that shields the wearer and the
home.
* The pentagram has five spiked wards and a womb shaped defensive,
protective pentagon at the center.
* There are five elements, four of matter (earth, air, fire and
water) and THE quintessential - spirit. These may be arrayed
around the pentagrams points.
+ The word 'quintessential' derives from this fifth element -
the spirit.
* Single point upwards signifies the spirit ruling matter (mind
ruling limbs); is a symbol of rightness. With two points up and
one (spirit) downwards, subservient, the emphasis is on the carnal
nature of Man.
* Tracing a path around the pentagram, the elements are placed in
order of density - spirit (or aether). fire, air, water, earth.
Earth and fire are basal, fixed; air and water are free, flowing.
* These point attributions are used in ritually inscribing, as a
flourish of the hands or the athame, different forms of pentagram
for invoking or banishing (grounding) each of the elementals
according to the nature of the ritual. The line traces as
illustrated for earth (the last stroke is optional).

Another way of seeing this path is as Man's spiritual journey through
evolution. The spark of Life descending from God, the divine source of
life to the simplest embryonic form (earth), rising to flow (water -
air) on our plane of existence (compare with the intonation of the AUM
mantra), then again descending to the fire of purification before
again rising as a divine spark to find again his spiritual source.
_________________________________________________________________

* The pentagram may be shown as an interlaced line symbolic of the
web-weaving power of magick. The descending spirit-earth line may
pass under (male) or over (female) the water-air line to give two
slightly differing forms.
* A pentagram may be open, without a surrounding circle. This is the
active form symbolizing an outgoing of oneself, prepared for
conflict, aware, active. (One wearing an open pentagram must be
physically aware of the danger of sharp points sticking in their
skin from time to time !)
* A circle around a pentagram contains and protects. It is the
passive form implying spiritual containment of the magic circle.
The circle also represents eternity and infinity.

Inverted Pentagram
* The pentagram may be inverted with one point down. The implication
is of spirit subservient to matter, of man subservient to his
carnal desires.
* The inverted pentagram has come to be seen by many pagans as
representing the dark side and it is abhorred as an evil symbol.
Fundamental Christians, indeed, see any form of pentagram as such.
* However, these are recent developments and the inverted pentagram
is the symbol of Gardnerian second degree initiation, representing
the need of the witch to learn to face the darkness within so that
it may not later rise up to take control.

* The center of a pentagram implies a sixth formative element -
love/will which controls from within, ruling matter and spirit by
Will and the controlled magickal direction of sexual energies.
This is another lesson of initiation.
_________________________________________________________________

In physical form, the pentagram may be worn as an amulet - as
jewelry - pendant, ring, earrings, buckle, etc....

- The earliest recorded use of the pentagram as a mystical symbol was by
the Gnostics, who called it the Blazing Star. It was also considered by
Christians during the middle ages to be a symbol of the Five Wounds of
Christ, and used as a protective glyph, generally as a variation on the
Seal of Solomon (a Star of David within a circle).

- The association of the pentagram with non-Christian belief, and its
modern "elemental" analysis, were evidently introduced during the
revival of occultism in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Masons and
similar groups such as the OTO took it up--for example, A.E. Waite is
the person who introduced the symbol into the Tarot deck, replacing
the traditional suit of Coins.

- The use of the "inverted" pentagram to denote evil is a quite recent
usage, and first appears in the works of Eliphas Levi. He is also the
source of the "goat's head" glyph. Before this, neither orientation
had evil connotations per se.

- The modern pagan movement picked up the pentagram as part of a general
borrowing from earlier "occult" usage, and Wicca in particular has
taken it up as an explicit denotational symbol, similar to the
cross, the Thor's hammer, and so on.


According to my own research so far:

The categorization of the "inverted" (one-point-down) pentagram as
"evil" vs. the "upright" (one-point-up) pentagram as "good"
originates in the writings of Eliphas Levi in the 19th Century, most
notably the works "The History of Magic" and "Doctrine and Ritual of
Transcendental Magic." He is also the originator of the now-infamous
goat's head glyph. Eliphas Levi (actually the pen name of Alphonse
Louis Constant, a French Catholic deacon) was one of a number of
writers who constituted a reaction against 18th century rationalism.
His works have had a lasting effect on French magical traditions, and
were instrumental in the development of the Tarot as a serious tool of
Hermetic magic, despite its humble beginnings in Gypsy fortune-telling.

Levi was the first Hermetic writer to assign an elemental (or perhaps
more accurately, alchemical) meaning to the pentagram, which before
him had been used principally as a protective glyph denoting the five
wounds of Christ (and as such, occurs in both orientations in Gothic
cathedrals and cloisters all across Europe)).

Now, I would be more than interested to hear about evidence that
contradicts the derivation I give above; however, I have yet to come
across any "evil" connotations of the pentagram, or the orientation
thereof, that predate Eliphas Levi (who lived from 1810-1875).

This is not to say that his analysis is nonsense--far otherwise, in
fact. If you apply his elemental attributions to the points of the
figure, the orientation does indeed profoundly affect the resulting
connotations. However, it is a mistake to believe that this
interpretation is any more "traditional" than 150 or so years, or for
that matter particularly pagan. It has, however, been picked up by
modern paganism, and has been (comparatively speaking) neglected by
modern hermeticism, which has focused primarily on the Tarot and the
Kabbalah.


|Eliphas Levi is the earliest source I have yet found in European
|esotericism which gives the points of the star an elemental attribution

This was probably derived from Tycho Brahe's _Calendarium Naturale
Magicum Perpetuum..._, the ancestor of _Liber 777_ and many other works
of that sort. Although the Calendarium does not show a pentagram
marked with the elements, the row "Quinarius denari ..." shows all
the details: a pentagram with human body imposed, Hebrew for YHSVH,
and the elements associated. That's 1582 e.v. Other, later sources
also have the material. Looking to either the _Picatrix_ or the
writings of Petro de Abano might turn up earlier European usage.

In the book Symbols of t Prehistoric Mesopotamia by Beatrice Laura Goff , the
pentagram is shown and related to the Uruk (Biblical)Eriech)period of
Mesopotamian civilization (3500 B.C>.E.). This sign is located on potsherds
in the location of Uruk (near the mouth of the Gulf), and is in the company of
signs relating to the beginning of written language. In the book Symbols of
the Gods o in Mesopotamian Art by E.Douglas Van Buren, we find the Pentagram
belonging to the archaic period UrukIV, and more frequently on Jemdet
Nasr(3100-2900B.C>.E.) and Proto-Elamite tablets (3000-2500B.C.E.). The title
suggested for the sign is revealing, UB , 'explained as "the very sign used in
the royal inscriptions to designate, in a somewhat obscuretitle, a power
extending to the 'four corners of the world''. These points are the four
corners of the compass.


To say "the pentagram was considered an evil symbol by the Christians" is
a little ... well, general.

I haven't searched the whole corpus of Christian literature, and tallied
up all the mentions of pentagrams-good and pentagrams-bad, but I would
like to point out that (a) the pentagram occurs in "Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight," and not as an evil symbol; (b) the pentagram was often regarded
as emblematic of the Five Wounds of Christ; and (c) the pentagram was
not an evil symbol for Pythagoreans, and there was a strong current
of admiration, in Christian tradition (though not a unanimous one), for
"noble pagans" -- Pythagoras, Plato, various Stoics, Plotinus, and so
on. A good example of the ambivalence in Christian tradition toward
writers and thinkers is Dante's treatment of Virgil.

Can anyone come up with a specific text originating from the first
thousand years of Christianity denouncing the pentagram as an innately
evil symbol? I wouldn't be surprised, myself, if the first occurrence
of such texts was some time within the past two centuries. Or five
centuries.

The points of the pentagram are viewed by many as follows:
top: Spirit, right top: Water, right bottom: Fire, left top: Air,
Left bottom: Earth.
Most wear them to remind them to always have Spirit over the elements in
life. Also Life, health, protection (especially against hostile
spirits.)
Also a human being as a microcosm of the universe.
The points can represent the five senses, stages of life or states of
consciousness..
Hope this is of some help! There is a lot of symbolism in a pentagram it
has had many names through the ages: Pentalpha, the Endless Knot, the
Pentacle of the Virgin, The Seal of the Microcosm, the Star of Knowledge,
the Pentacle of the Templars, and according to some, the Seal Of Solomon,
Medieval churchman however, called it witch's funk or wizard's star. It
has been used by Sumerians, Kabbalists, Celts, Egyptians, Christians and
Gypsies.

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Phueng

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It has long been a truism within occult circles that the pentagram, when one point is ascendant, is a symbol for the positive principle, and when two points are ascendant it is a symbol for the negative principle.
This is derived from a claim made by Éliphas Lévi that the direction of the rays of the pentagram determine if it represents the good or evil principle: one point up representing order and light, two points up representing disorder and darkness. Lévi gives no justification or citation for this arbitrary distinction and goes on to arbitrarily equate the pentagram as a symbol for the Baphomet or goat headed god. [1] This ignores, or distorts, the pentagram’s inclusion, one point down, in Constantine’s seal, the later mediaeval depiction of it as a medical symbol of health, and its Christian representation as a symbol of the Transfiguration of Christ.
Aleistar Crowley wrote that the point down pentagram indicates the individual (microcosm) in a "Solar orientation", meaning not "earth oriented". Also that it had been used as a symbol of the Baphomet, the great androgyne. He interpreted the "averse" pentagram to indicate the New Aeon transcendance of the old Osirian/Christian limitations. [2]
Manly P. Hall made the further startling claim that 'the star may be broken at one point by not permitting the converging lines to touch; it may be inverted by having one point down and two up; it may be distorted by having the points of varying lengths. When used in black magic, the pentagram is called the "sign of the cloven hoof," or the footprint of the Devil.' Like so many esoteric writers, he fails to provide any evidence. [3]
No known graphical illustration associating the pentagram with evil appears until Lévi in the nineteenth century. The Inquisition of the early 1300s does not appear to have made a connection between the pentagram and the Knights Templar’s alleged worship of the Baphomet. Neither the Rule of the Order, the eleven charges against the Knights Templar, nor the eight Papal Bulls promulgated against them make any mention of the pentagram or its association with the Baphomet. Claims that the pentagram was significant to the Templars appear to be unfounded. Its use in hermetic manuscripts is rare. [See Appendix I for additional illustrations.]
It is only in the later twentieth century, and the creation of the American Church of Satan, that the inverted pentagram has become a popular symbol for Satan.


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Phueng

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ok, so why born satanism, and why they use ancient symbol pentagram?

The Satanic connection to the pentagram is largely a 19th century invention. It was a time when occult groups were getting some press, and all sorts of bizarre accusations and suspicions were made of them. This was fueled, in part, by the antics of a few particular occultists, who were essentially 19th century shock jocks.

In addition, these occult groups had some symbols that looked kind of demonic. The Baphomet pentagram, for example. People preferred to jump to conclusions rather than learn what these images actually meant.

These 19th century occultists are also the ones who ascribed different meanings to point up and point down pentagrams. (Neither of which was inherently "Satanic" but set the groundwork for later Satanists to adopt the point down pentagram)

Xmm ok if satanic pentacle born in 19th century, so when born word Satan?)

I have reorganized this area to reflect what I have come to know about Satanism over the course of my research. I still feel no obligation to defend it as a religion; this site is not primarily about Satanism. However, I have now made the effort to qualify some of the statements made below. Material in this section was written by Captain Randy Johnson, a police officer. He has done extensive research on the subject of the occult and satanism; and he often lectures to other police officers about these subjects in relation to criminal activity. After interviewing him, I trust that he is more knowledgeable about the subject than I. However, I think there is some additional information that needs to be presented to supplement his material. Here is my theory:

What's a Christian Satanist? I would describe them as people who have been raised in the Christian tradition. They believe the principles and tenets of Christianity (they accept the Christian teleological explanation of the universe), but they choose to worship the figure of Satan rather than Christ. They call themselves Satanists, but they have little to nothing in common with followers of LaVey's Church of Satan, or any other group of proclaimed satanists. What's the difference? The primary motivation of the Christian Satanist is rebellion. They make up their worship as they go along.

The myths of demonology and Satanism have been spread by fundamentalist Christian groups throughout the centuries. The Salem witch hunts and Spanish Inquisition are the most familiar examples of Christian fervor to brand anything different from itself as Satanism. Extreme Christian groups have shown throughout history to use scare-tactics to keep their followers in line. Satan has also often been the scapegoat for those who stepped out of line, i.e. "the devil made me do it."

Kenneth Lanning of the FBI reported that there is no conclusive evidence that a secret, organized, Satanic cult group committing large-scale crime and multiple murders has ever existed. However, there are rebellious teenagers today who choose to do anything in their power to shock and outrage adults. Since Christianity is the dominant belief system of Western culture, the concept of Satan as the "evil being" has a certain appeal to anyone who wishes to upset conservative forces. These teens will buy into what I call the myth of Christian Satanism. They will create a reality to substantiate the myth. They will act to fulfill every stereotype which has been presented as Satanism by the media and religion. They will also use Satanism as an excuse to justify or explain criminal activity they don't want to take responsibility for. This group of youthful Christian Satanists essentially exists because of the myth originally popularized by conservative Christian groups.

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